Gal Bladder Disorders
The gal-bladder is a pear-shaped organ, 10 cm. long and three to five cm. wide, attached to the under-surface of the liver on the right side. The main function of the gal-bladder is to store the bile secreted by the liver. Bile is an excretion composed mainly of bile salts and acids, color pigments and cholesterol. Bile assists in the digestion and absorption of fats and the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, minerals and calcium.

The gal-bladder is usually full and relaxed between meals. During the process of digestion, when food reaches the duodenum, the hormone cholecystokinin begins to be produced in the internal mucosa. When this hormone reaches the gal-bladder through the bloodstream, it causes the gal-bladder to contract, thereby releasing the bile concentrate into the duodenum via a common duct.

The main problems which afflict the gal-bladder are an inflammatory condition known as cholecystitis and gal-stones. Gal-stones are usually caused by disturbances in the composition of the bile. A change in the ratio of cholesterol and bile salts may result in the formation of deposits. At the start, these may be in the form of fine gravel. But these fine particles constitute the nucleus for further deposits, ultimately leading to the formation of larger stones. An irritation of the lining of the gal-bladder due to inflammation may also lead to the formation of particles.

The incidence of gal-stones is higher in females than males, particularly in those who are obese.

Indigestion, gas, a feeling of fullness after meals, constipation, nausea and disturbed vision are the usual symptoms of gal-bladder disorders. Other symptoms are intolerance to fats, dizziness, jaundice, anemia, acne and other lesions. Varicose veins, hemorrhoids and breakdown of capillaries are also disorders associated with gal-bladder troubles.

The main causes of gal-bladder disorders are digestive disturbances due to a regular excessive intake of fats and carbo-hydrates in the diet. They can also be brought on by disturbances of the liver and gal-bladder. Meals rich in fats may cause an attack of gal-bladder pain or gal-stone colic. Often the disorder is caused by a diet rich in refined carbohydrates such as white flour and white sugar. Poor health, hereditary factors, stress, spinal displacements, bad posture and muscular tension may also cause gal-bladder disorders.

Types of Gal Stones
There are three types of gal-stones, depending on the cause of their formation. These are: cholesterol stones caused by a change in the ratio of cholesterol to bile salts; pigment stones (composed of bile pigment) caused by the destruction of red blood cells due to certain blood diseases, and mixed stones consisting of layers of cholesterol, calcium and bile pigment (bilirubin) resulting from stagnation of the bile flow.