Bunions are enlarged areas of the inner part of the big toe associated with a fluid-filled pad (bursa) underneath the often hardened outer skin. Bunions are caused by a swelling of the bursa of the metatarso-phalangeal joint (the joint that joins the toe to the foot) of the big toe, which in turn forces the toe to point inward as the joint itself protrudes outward.

The most common symptom of bunions is the large toe(s) moving inward and potentially becoming inflamed, creating mild to extreme pain.


Bunions occur more frequently in women who wear pointed and tight-fitting shoes. However, bunions can often be hereditary.

To correct or improve a bunion, structural and functional correction of the postural and mechanical (weight-bearing) factors that led to its development is required. Fallen arches, postural muscle imbalance in the legs and pelvic area, and problems involving low back and pelvic joint mechanics, as well as habits of use (running, walking, and standing postures relating to work, sport, and general function) all need attention from skilled practitioners using manipulation and rehabilitation methods, including physical therapists, chiropractors, and osteopaths.


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